A week cycle has been used among various societies from very ancient times. As an example, a week cycle of 10 days was tracked by priest-astronomers in the region of ancient Egypt. Also, Mesoamericans have tracked a week cycle of 13 days from an early era. The modern week cycle of 7 days--based upon the order of the planets--has been used throughout regions of Asia and Europe since about the turn of the third century CE.
It is here of interest that a week cycle of 7 days appears to have been in use in the region of Mesopotamia from prior to the sixth century BCE. This respective week cycle (7 days) appears to have subsequently been tracked and celebrated in the region of Judea.
By counting 7 days across segments of 7 years--and ultimately across segments of 70 years--early astronomers are indicated to have achieved a very precise annual calendar. Remarkable is that an annual calendar--which averages 365.24 days--can be achieved through nothing more then an ongoing count of the 7-day week.
The chronology of the once celebrated cycle of 7 years and also the epoch of the 70th year can ultimately be reconstructed from ancient legal contracts and from other Second-Temple sources. It is here significant that the year 37-36 BCE (the year in which Herod-the-Great ascended to the throne of Judea) appears to have corresponded with a 70th year of this once reckoned time cycle.
For additional information concerning the calendar count of 7 days, refer to the online publication entitled: 'The Significance of 70 Years'.
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